Saturday, May 25, 2024

A Daisy wheel is a Module

Andrea Palladio wrote that he chose to use a Module to lay out the columns he drew.*

All the dimensions which he noted were derived from the diameter
 of the column measured at the bottom,  ie: the height of the column, the capital, architrave, frieze and cornice.

He wrote, " the dividing and measuring the said orders, I would not make use of any certain and determinate measure peculiar to any city, as a cubit, foot, or palm, knowing that these several measures differ as much as the cities and countries; but imitating Vitruvius, who divides the Doric order with a measure taken from the thickness or diameter of the columns, common to all, and by him called a module, I shall make use of the same measure in all the orders." 




The cross section, the diameter, of a column is a circle.





A daisy wheel is a circle.

It's easy to draw with a compass or dividers.









It is a module.




This sheathing board leans against my corn crib. It was siding for a timber framed shed, part of a farm complex in Danby, Vermont. The board is 10' tall, angled at the top to fit under the roof eaves. 



Today it folds in 2 places. It fits in my car; it stands on its own at a conference, ready to be seen and examined.



The daisy wheel was cut into the board at a height of 42"  above the floor, a good height for the builder and his crew who would have set their dividers to its width. All of them needed to be using the exact same dimension (their module) as they laid out their work.  


This daisy wheel's diameter is slightly more than 8 inches.

The wheel is just above the center of the photo. In the images below the board has been laid down. 



Dividers set from one petal to the other across from it, the diameter of the daisy wheel.

Note the holes on the circumference and the center left by previous users.




Here the dividers, set open at the same angle, are rotated 60* farther around the circumference. They are at the points of another pair of daisy wheel petals, the circle's diameter. The distance is the same as it was before. 

Note the holes are not quite on the petals tips, rather they are on the circumference of the circle. Many daisy wheels were not precise.  




Here the dividers points have been slipped into the holes drilled by all the previous carpenters' dividers.


My dividers slid right in place, so secure they stood by themselves.

I had never tried this before - I was surprised and awed: my placement was one that many had done before me. 


The black marks on the board above the daisy wheel are the holes left by rusty nails.


* Andrea Palladio, Four Books on Architecture, 1570, Isaac Ware English Translation, 1738, Dover reprint, 1965. Palladio's statement about modules is on page 13, First Book. The image of the Doric Order is Plate XII, First Book. 

Friday, May 3, 2024

How to Layout a Pediment: 350 years of instructions

A short history of classical pediments in the Western world,  c. 1540 to c.1903. 

Vignola's Rule was first laid out by Giacomo (Jacopo) Barozzi da Vignola in his Cannon, published in 1562.

This image was  published in 1903 in William Ware's The American Vignola.* 


Was it Vignola's  rule or did he just record it? 

It's possible that the Rule itself was already widely known.  


In 1540 Sebastiano Serlio drew this sketch in Book IV of his On Architecture.* 

He wrote, "...
having drawn the cornice, divide the upper line from one side to the other in the middle, between A and B; drop half of this plumb from the middle to make C; then placing one compass point on C and the other on the side of the cornice A, arc to the side B; the highest point of the curved line will mark the required height for the pediment. A curved pediment can also be made with such a rule."*

The diagram shows the actual twine held tight at Points A and B. It is a Line with its ends dangling and curling.


Palladio doesn't describe this, but the roofs in his The Four Books of Architecture (1570) use the same pitch. 


Vignola's book on architecture was translated, of course.

This image, c. 1600, attributed to Vignola, comes from a book published in Spain.







His 5 Orders of Architecture* were translated into English and published by John Leeke in 1669. Vignola's portrait (Plate I)  is surrounded by a decorative frame topped by an extravagant  pediment.  It does not quite follow Vignola's Rule. Follow the red lines.







John Leeke' book  included 3 pediments attributed to 'Michel Angelo'. This one, the simplest, does seem to use Vignola's formula. The angle is the proper 22.5*. Did Michael Angelo know of Vignola's work?




A complete English translation of Serlio's 5 Books on Architecture, including the sketch of the pediment's layout, was available in the UK about 1720. 

James Gibbs probably had read both Vignola and Serlio.  He uses the geometry in the pediment of a Menagery, in his book, On Architecture*. Perhaps Gibbs includes the knowledge of this diagram when he writes that his 'draughts ... may be executed by  any Workman who understands  Lines'. 

William Salmon's book, Palladio Londinensis*, published in the 1750's, was intended for the London builder. Pediments are included; their proportions are measured in parts. Perhaps Salmon considered the understanding of geometry by London's builders to be scant, or that it was not applicable to London's tightly set row houses.



The rule for laying out a pediment came to the States with craftsmen as well with their pattern books. The Rockingham Meetinghouse, finished by 1797, is a classic New England meeting house:  plain and unadorned...



until you look at its doors. The pediments of the classical frontispieces follow Serlio's layout. 


I began my diagram here on the lower edge of the pediment's frame. If the layout is moved to the upper edge of that plate, the arc marks the top of the ridge of the pediment roof, rather than at the underside.



At about the same time William Pain includes the same arcs (lightly dashed here) and describes how to draw them in The Practical House Carpenter,* a pattern book widely available in the States.

Here is Asher Benjamin's simplification of Pain's engraving in The Country Builder's Assistant*, published in 1797.







This door front in Springfield, VT, c. 1800, was probably inspired by Benjamin's illustration.






The Industrial Revolution brought new tools and materials. Galvanized metal allowed shallow roof pitches which didn't leak.




Here's an example of a shallow roof pitch from Samuel Sloan's pattern book, The Modern Architect*, published in 1852 .





Sloan's Plate XXXV shows the steeple structure. The frame spanning the building uses the traditional roof pitch of Serlio's pediment (22*). The pitch of the roof is much shallower (15*)

For the next 50 years architectural style was giddy with the designs made possible by the Industrial Revolution.


 By 1900, the design possibilities made possible by 60 years of industrialization were taken for granted. Architects looked to Europe, especially the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris, for inspiration, and perhaps a re-grounding in tradition.

William Ware wrote The American Vignola in 1903 as a guide for his students at the Architectural School of Columbia University. 

Here's his Plate XVII with many pediments. The dotted lines compare measured/built pediments in Greece and Rome to Vignola's standard.








 The 2 small diagrams on the right side Plate XVII are his codification to Vignola's Rule



 As I compiled these illustrations I found 2 caveats:

Owen Biddle* published his pattern book in 1804. Instead of a general rule for 'a pitch pediment frontispieces', Biddle wrote that the roof angle was 2/9 of the span. He also wrote that for 'the townhouse with a narrow front... the true proportions of the Orders may be dispensed with..." p. 34

William Ware noted that "...if a building is high and narrow, the slope needs to be steeper, and if it is low and wide, flatter." p. 45

And finally, this advice from William Salmon: "...when you begin to draw the Lines,... omit drawing them in Ink, and only draw them with the Point of the Compasses, or Pencil, that they may not be discovered when your Draught is finished..." p. 103.


*The books from which I have copied illustrations and quotes for this blog are listed in alphabetical order by author.

Asher Benjamin, The Country Builder's Assistant, Greenfield, MA., 1797, Plate 10. 

Owen Biddle, The Young Carpenter's Assistant, Philadelphia, 1805, Plate 15. 

James Gibbs, On Architecture, London, 1728, introduction and Plate 84.

William Pain,The Practical House Carpenter, fifth edition, London, 1794,  Plate 38.

Sebastiano Serlio, On Architecture, , c. 1545, Book IV, page xxviii.

Samuel Sloan, The Modern Architect, 1852,  Plates XXVII and XXXV.

WilliamWare, The American Vignola, W.W. Norton & Co., NYC, 1903, Plate XVII.